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PDK4 Antibody (C-term)

Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)

     
  • 14 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    AP7041b staining PDK4 in human heart tissue sections by Immunohistochemistry (IHC-P - paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections). Tissue was fixed with formaldehyde and blocked with 3% BSA for 0. 5 hour at room temperature; antigen retrieval was by heat mediation with a citrate buffer (pH6). Samples were incubated with primary antibody (1/25) for 1 hours at 37°C. A undiluted biotinylated goat polyvalent antibody was used as the secondary antibody.
  • 1 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    All lanes : Anti-PDK4 Antibody (C-term) at 1:2000 dilution Lane 1: human heart lysate Lane 2: K562 whole cell lysate Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane. Secondary Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, (H+L), Peroxidase conjugated at 1/10000 dilution. Predicted band size : 46 kDa Blocking/Dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.
  • 1 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    Anti-PDK4 Antibody (C-term) at 1:2000 dilution + human heart lysate Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane. Secondary Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, (H+L), Peroxidase conjugated at 1/10000 dilution. Predicted band size : 46 kDa Blocking/Dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.
  • 1 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    All lanes : Anti-PDK4 Antibody (C396) at 1:2000 dilution Lane 1: human heart lysates Lane 2: mouse skeletal muscle lysates Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane. Secondary Goat Anti-Rabbit IgG, (H+L), Peroxidase conjugated at 1/10000 dilution Predicted band size : 46 kDa Blocking/Dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.
  • 3 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    Fluorescent confocal image of HeLa cells stained with PDK4 (C-term) antibody. HeLa cells were fixed with 4% PFA (20 min), permeabilized with Triton X-100 (0.2%, 30 min). Cells were then incubated with AP7041b PDK4 (C-term) primary antibody (1:100, 2 h at room temperature). For secondary antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugated donkey anti-rabbit antibody (green) was used (1:1000, 1h). Nuclei were counterstained with Hoechst 33342 (blue) (10 μg/ml, 5 min). Note the highly specific localization of the PDK4 mainly to the cytoplasm.
  • 14 - PDK4 Antibody (C-term) AP7041B
    Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human skeletal muscle reacted with PDK4 Antibody (C-term) (Cat. #AP7041b), which was peroxidase-conjugated to the secondary antibody, followed by DAB staining. This data demonstrates the use of this antibody for immunohistochemistry; clinical relevance has not been evaluated.
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  • 文献引用 : 26
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Product info
Application
  • Applications Legend:
  • E=ELISA
  • WB=Western Blotting
  • IHC=Immunohistochemistry
  • IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
  • IP=Immunoprecipitation
  • IF=Immunofluorescence
  • IC=Immunochemistry
  • ICC=Immunocytochemistry
  • FC=Flow Cytometry
  • DB=Dot Blot
WB, IHC-P, IF, E
Primary Accession Q16654
Reactivity Human, Mouse
Host Rabbit
Clonality Polyclonal
Isotype Rabbit Ig
Additional info
Gene ID 5166
Other Names [Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrial, Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4, PDK4, PDHK4
Target/Specificity This PDK4 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 382-410 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human PDK4.
Dilution IHC-P~~1:10~50
WB~~1:2000
IF~~1:100
Format Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is purified through a protein G column, eluted with high and low pH buffers and neutralized immediately, followed by dialysis against PBS.
StorageMaintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.
PrecautionsPDK4 Antibody (C-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
Protein Information
Name PDK4
Synonyms PDHK4
Function Kinase that plays a key role in regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism in response to prolonged fasting and starvation. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels under starvation, and is involved in the insulin signaling cascade. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. In the fed state, mediates cellular responses to glucose levels and to a high-fat diet. Regulates both fatty acid oxidation and de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. Plays a role in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Protects detached epithelial cells against anoikis. Plays a role in cell proliferation via its role in regulating carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism.
Cellular Location Mitochondrion matrix.
Tissue Location Ubiquitous; highest levels of expression in heart and skeletal muscle.
Research Areas
Increasing cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase flux during chronic hypoxia improves acute hypoxic tolerance.
Author : Handzlik MK1,Constantin-Teodosiu D1,2,Greenhaff PL1,2,Cole MA1.
J Physiol. 2018 Jan 31. doi: 10.1113/JP275357. [Epub ahead of print]
29383727
Defects in the mitochondrial-tRNA modification enzymes MTO1 and GTPBP3 promote different metabolic reprogramming through a HIF-PPARγ-UCP2-AMPK axis.
Author : Boutoual R1,2,Meseguer S3,Villarroya M1,Martín-Hernández E4,Errami M2,Martín MA5,6,Casado M7,8,Armengod ME9,10.
Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 18;8(1):1163. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19587-5.
29348686
The microRNA-182-PDK4 axis regulates lung tumorigenesis by modulating pyruvate dehydrogenase and lipogenesis.
Author : Li G1, Li M2, Hu J1, Lei R1, Xiong H3, Ji H4, Yin H2, Wei Q5, Hu G1.
Oncogene. 2016 Sep 19. doi: 10.1038/onc.2016.265. [Epub ahead of print]
27641336
Transforming Growth Factor β Mediates Drug Resistance by Regulating the Expression of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 in Colorectal Cancer.
Author : Zhang Y1, Zhang Y2, Geng L3, Yi H1, Huo W4, Talmon G5, Kim YC6, Wang SM6, Wang J7.
J Biol Chem. 2016 Aug 12;291(33):17405-16. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.713735. Epub 2016 Jun 21.
27330076
Arsenic silences hepatic PDK4 expression through activation of histone H3K9 methylatransferase G9a.
Author : Zhang X1, Wu J1, Choiniere J1, Yang Z2, Huang Y3, Bennett J1, Wang L4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 May 20. pii: S0041-008X(16)30121-1. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.05.015. [Epub ahead of print]
27217333
On the pivotal role of PPARα in adaptation of the heart to hypoxia and why fat in the diet increases hypoxic injury.
Author : Cole MA1, Abd Jamil AH1, Heather LC1, Murray AJ1, Sutton ER1, Slingo M1, Sebag-Montefiore L2, Tan SC1, Aksentijević D2, Gildea OS1, Stuckey DJ FASEB J. 2016 Apr 21. pii: fj.201500094R. [Epub ahead of print]
27103577
miR-211 functions as a metabolic switch in human melanoma cells.
Author : Mazar J1, Qi F1, Lee B1, Marchica J1, Govindarajan S1, Shelley J1, Li JL1, Ray A2, Perera RJ3.
Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Jan 19. pii: MCB.00762-15. [Epub ahead of print]
26787841
Diacylglycerol kinase-δ regulates AMPK signaling, lipid metabolism, and skeletal muscle energetics.
Author : Jiang LQ1, de Castro Barbosa T1, Massart J1, Deshmukh AS1, Lofgren L2, Duque-Guimaraes DE1, Ozilgen A1, Osler ME1, Chibalin AV1, Zierath JR3.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan 1;310(1):E51-60. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00209.2015. Epub 2015 Nov 3.
26530149
Altered regulation of PDK4 expression promotes antiestrogen resistance in human breast cancer cells.
Author : Walter W1, Thomalla J1, Bruhn J1, Fagan DH2, Zehowski C1, Yee D2, Skildum A3.
Springerplus. 2015 Nov 10;4:689.
26576332
Glucose oxidation modulates anoikis and tumor metastasis.
Author : Kamarajugadda S1, Stemboroski L, Cai Q, Simpson NE, Nayak S, Tan M, Lu J.
Mol Cell Biol. 2012 May;32(10):1893-907. doi: 10.1128/MCB.06248-11. Epub 2012 Mar 19.
22431524
Kruppel-like factor 15 regulates skeletal muscle lipid flux and exercise adaptation.
Author : Haldar SM1, Jeyaraj D, Anand P, Zhu H, Lu Y, Prosdocimo DA, Eapen B, Kawanami D, Okutsu M, Brotto L, Fujioka H, Kerner J, Rosca MG, McGuinness OP, Snow RJ, Russell AP, Gerber AN, Bai X, Yan Z, Nosek TM, Brotto M, Hoppel CL, Jain MK.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 24;109(17):6739-44. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1121060109. Epub 2012 Apr 9.
22493257
Dietary supplementation with vitamin E and C attenuates dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance in rats.
Author : Williams DB, Wan Z, Frier BC, Bell RC, Field CJ, Wright DC.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012 Jan 1;302(1):R49-58. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00304.2011. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
22031784
PDH activation during in vitro muscle contractions in PDH kinase 2 knockout mice: effect of PDH kinase 1 compensation.
Author : Dunford EC, Herbst EA, Jeoung NH, Gittings W, Inglis JG, Vandenboom R, LeBlanc PJ, Harris RA, Peters SJ.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011 Jun;300(6):R1487-93. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00498.2010. Epub 2011 Mar 16.
21411764
Differential expression of metabolic genes essential for glucose and lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle from spinal cord injured subjects.
Author : Long YC, Kostovski E, Boon H, Hjeltnes N, Krook A, Widegren U.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011 May;110(5):1204-10. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00686.2010. Epub 2011 Mar 10.
21393466
Intrinsic protein kinase activity in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complexes.
Author : Phillips D, Aponte AM, Covian R, Balaban RS.
Biochemistry. 2011 Apr 5;50(13):2515-29. doi: 10.1021/bi101434x. Epub 2011 Mar 8.
21329348
Adaptive gene regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 in hepatotoxic chemical-induced liver injury and its stimulatory potential for DNA repair and cell proliferation.
Author : Dateki M, Kunitomo M, Yoshioka K, Yanai K, Nakasono S, Negishi T.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2011 Feb;31(1):85-95. doi: 10.3109/10799893.2010.538405.
21182459
Bezafibrate induces myotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling.
Author : Zhao Y, Okuyama M, Hashimoto H, Tagawa Y, Jomori T, Yang B.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Feb;24(1):154-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2009.08.001. Epub 2009 Aug 13.
19683050
Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) by thyroid hormone: role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1 alpha).
Author : Attia RR, Connnaughton S, Boone LR, Wang F, Elam MB, Ness GC, Cook GA, Park EA.
J Biol Chem. 2010 Jan 22;285(4):2375-85. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.039081. Epub 2009 Nov 30.
19948729
Type 1 diabetic cardiomyopathy in the Akita (Ins2WT/C96Y) mouse model is characterized by lipotoxicity and diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function.
Author : Basu R, Oudit GY, Wang X, Zhang L, Ussher JR, Lopaschuk GD, Kassiri Z.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009 Dec;297(6):H2096-108. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00452.2009. Epub 2009 Oct 2.
19801494
Regulation of the PDK4 isozyme by the Rb-E2F1 complex.
Author : Hsieh MC, Das D, Sambandam N, Zhang MQ, Nahlé Z.
J Biol Chem. 2008 Oct 10;283(41):27410-7. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802418200. Epub 2008 Jul 30.
18667418
CD36-dependent regulation of muscle FoxO1 and PDK4 in the PPAR delta/beta-mediated adaptation to metabolic stress.
Author : Nahlé Z, Hsieh M, Pietka T, Coburn CT, Grimaldi PA, Zhang MQ, Das D, Abumrad NA.
J Biol Chem. 2008 May 23;283(21):14317-26. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M706478200. Epub 2008 Feb 28.
18308721
The STAT5A-mediated induction of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression by prolactin or growth hormone in adipocytes.
Author : White UA, Coulter AA, Miles TK, Stephens JM.
Diabetes. 2007 Jun;56(6):1623-9. Epub 2007 Mar 14.
17360981
Calcineurin regulates skeletal muscle metabolism via coordinated changes in gene expression.
Author : Long YC, Glund S, Garcia-Roves PM, Zierath JR.
J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 19;282(3):1607-14. Epub 2006 Nov 15.
17107952
Estrogen-related receptors stimulate pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4 gene expression.
Author : Zhang Y, Ma K, Sadana P, Chowdhury F, Gaillard S, Wang F, McDonnell DP, Unterman TG, Elam MB, Park EA.
J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 29;281(52):39897-906. Epub 2006 Nov 1.
17079227
Regulation of PDK mRNA by high fatty acid and glucose in pancreatic islets.
Author : Xu J1, Han J, Epstein PN, Liu YQ.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jun 9;344(3):827-33. Epub 2006 Apr 19.
16631612
Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by the farnesoid X receptor.
Author : Savkur RS, Bramlett KS, Michael LF, Burris TP.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Apr 1;329(1):391-6.
15721319

BACKGROUND

PDK4 inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism.

REFERENCES

References for protein:
1. Rosa, G., et al., Obes. Res. 11(2):176-182 (2003).
2.Razeghi, P., et al., Cardiology 97(4):203-209 (2002).
3.Rowles, J., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271(37):22376-22382 (1996).
4.Gudi, R., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270(48):28989-28994 (1995).

References for HeLa cell line:
1. Scherer WF, Syverton JT, Gey GO (May 1953). "Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix". J. Exp. Med. 97 (5): 695–710. [PubMed:13052828].

2. Macville M, Schröck E, Padilla-Nash H, Keck C, Ghadimi BM, Zimonjic D, Popescu N, Ried T (January 1999). "Comprehensive and definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of HeLa cells by spectral karyotyping". Cancer Res. 59 (1): 141–50. [PubMed: 9892199].
3. Rahbari R, Sheahan T, Modes V, Collier P, Macfarlane C, Badge RM (April 2009). "A novel L1 retrotransposon marker for HeLa cell line identification". BioTechniques 46 (4): 277–84. [PubMed: 19450234].

4. Capes-Davis A, Theodosopoulos G, Atkin I, Drexler HG, Kohara A, MacLeod RA, Masters JR, Nakamura Y, Reid YA, Reddel RR, Freshney RI (July 2010). "Check your cultures! A list of cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines". Int. J. Cancer 127 (1): 1–8. [PubMed:20143388].

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