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>   首页   >   产品   >   一抗   >   精选抗体   >   细胞自噬抗体   >   LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term)   

LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term)

Purified Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody (Pab)

     
  • 1 - LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term) AP1802a
    Western blot analysis of lysates from NIH/3T3, HT-1080 cell line, untreated or treated with chloroquine, 50μM, using LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (Cat. #AP1802a)(upper) or GAPDH(lower).
  • 1 - LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term) AP1802a
    Western blot analysis of lysates from HepG2, mouse NIH/3T3 cell line, untreated or treated with chloroquine, 50uM, using LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term)(Cat. #AP1802a)(upper) or Beta-actin (lower).
  • 3 - LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term) AP1802a
    Immunofluorescent analysis of U251 cells, using LC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term)(Cat. #AP1802a). U251 cells(right) were treated with Chloroquine (50 μM,16h). AP1802a was diluted at 1:100 dilution. Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit lgG at 1:400 dilution was used as the secondary antibody (green).DAPI was used to stain the cell nuclear (blue).
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  • 文献引用 : 75
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Product info
Application
  • Applications Legend:
  • E=ELISA
  • WB=Western Blotting
  • IHC=Immunohistochemistry
  • IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
  • IP=Immunoprecipitation
  • IF=Immunofluorescence
  • IC=Immunochemistry
  • ICC=Immunocytochemistry
  • FC=Flow Cytometry
  • DB=Dot Blot
WB, IF, E
Primary Accession Q9GZQ8
Other Accession A6NCE7, O41515
Reactivity Human, Mouse, Rat
Predicted Bovine
Host Rabbit
Clonality Polyclonal
Isotype Rabbit Ig
Additional info
Gene ID 81631
Other Names Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B, Autophagy-related protein LC3 B, Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like modifier LC3 B, MAP1 light chain 3-like protein 2, MAP1A/MAP1B light chain 3 B, MAP1A/MAP1B LC3 B, Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta, MAP1LC3B, MAP1ALC3
Target/Specificity This LC3 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 1-30 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human LC3.
Dilution WB~~1:1000
IF~~1:100
Format Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is prepared by Saturated Ammonium Sulfate (SAS) precipitation followed by dialysis against PBS.
StorageMaintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.
PrecautionsLC3 Antibody (APG8B) (N-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
Protein Information
Name MAP1LC3B
Synonyms MAP1ALC3
Function Ubiquitin-like modifier involved in formation of autophagosomal vacuoles (autophagosomes). Plays a role in mitophagy which contributes to regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production. Whereas LC3s are involved in elongation of the phagophore membrane, the GABARAP/GATE-16 subfamily is essential for a later stage in autophagosome maturation. Promotes primary ciliogenesis by removing OFD1 from centriolar satellites via the autophagic pathway.
Cellular Location Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Endomembrane system; Lipid-anchor. Cytoplasmic vesicle, autophagosome membrane; Lipid-anchor. Note=LC3-II binds to the autophagic membranes Localizes also to discrete punctae along the ciliary axoneme (By similarity).
Tissue Location Most abundant in heart, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. Little expression observed in liver
Research Areas
Histone deacetylase inhibition of cardiac autophagy in rats on a high‑fat diet with low‑dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Author : Lee TI1,Bai KJ2,Chen YC3,Lee TW4,Chung CC5,Tsai WC6,Tsao SY7,Kao YH5.
Mol Med Rep. 2017 Oct 26. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.7905. [Epub ahead of print]
29115461
Inhibition of Isoprenylcysteine carboxylmethyltransferase induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through p21 and p21-regulated BNIP3 induction in pancreatic cancer.
Author : Manu KA1,Chai TF1,Teh JT1,Zhu WL1,Casey PJ1,Wang M2.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017 Feb 6. pii: molcanther.0703.2016. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-16-0703. [Epub ahead of print]
28167504
Deletion of the BH3-only protein Noxa alters electrographic seizures but does not protect against hippocampal damage after status epilepticus in mice.
Author : Ichikawa N1,2,Alves M1,Pfeiffer S1,Langa E1,Hernández-Santana YE1,Suzuki H2,Prehn JH1,Engel T1,Henshall DC1.
Cell Death Dis. 2017 Jan 12;8(1):e2556. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.301.
28079889
Disruption of endolysosomal trafficking pathways in glioma cells by methuosis-inducing indole-based chalcones.
Author : Mbah NE1,Overmeyer JH1,Maltese WA2.
Cell Biol Toxicol. 2016 Nov 7. [Epub ahead of print]
27822587
Ghrelin protects small intestinal epithelium against sepsis-induced injury by enhancing the autophagy of intestinal epithelial cells.
Author : Wan SX1,Shi B2,Lou XL3,Liu JQ4,Ma GG5,Liang DY3,Ma S6.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct;83:1315-1320. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.048. Epub 2016 Aug 27.
27571874
Low expression of MAP1LC3B, associated with low Beclin-1, predicts lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of gastric cancer.
Author : Yu S1, Li G1, Wang Z2, Wang Z1, Chen C1, Cai S1, He Y1.
Tumour Biol. 2016 Sep 22. [Epub ahead of print]
27655288
The autophagy pathway participates in resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus infection in whiteflies.
Author : Wang LL1,Wang XR1,Wei XM1,Huang H1,Wu JX2,Chen XX1,Liu SS1,Wang XW1.
Autophagy. 2016 Sep;12(9):1560-74. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2016.1192749. Epub 2016 Jun 16.
27310765
Exocytosis of varicella-zoster virions involves a convergence of endosomal and autophagy pathways.
Author : Buckingham EM1, Jarosinski KW1, Jackson W1, Carpenter JE1, Grose C2.
J Virol. 2016 Jul 20. pii: JVI.00915-16. [Epub ahead of print]
27440906
Combination of the novel histone deacetylase inhibitor YCW1 and radiation induces autophagic cell death through the downregulation of BNIP3 in triple-negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model.
Author : Chiu HW1,2, Yeh YL3, Wang YC4,5, Huang WJ6, Ho SY7,8, Lin P9, Wang YJ10,11,12.
Mol Cancer. 2016 Jun 10;15(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12943-016-0531-5.
27286975
Autophagy generates citrullinated peptides in human synoviocytes: a possible trigger for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies.
Author : Sorice M1, Iannuccelli C2, Manganelli V1, Capozzi A1, Alessandri C3, Lococo E1, Garofalo T1, Di Franco M2, Bombardieri M4, Nerviani A4, Misasi R<
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Apr 12. pii: kew178. [Epub ahead of print]
27074807
IKKβ/NFκBp65 activated by interleukin-13 targets the autophagy-related genes LC3B and beclin 1 in fibroblasts co-cultured with breast cancer cells.
Author : Li WL1, Xiong LX2, Shi XY1, Xiao L3, Qi GY1, Meng C1.
Exp Ther Med. 2016 Apr;11(4):1259-1264. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
27073433
Iron mitigates DMT1-mediated manganese cytotoxicity via the ASK1-JNK signaling axis: Implications of iron supplementation for manganese toxicity.
Author : Tai YK1, Chew KC1, Tan BW1, Lim KL1,2,3, Soong TW1,4,2.
Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 16;6:21113. doi: 10.1038/srep21113.
26878799
Far-infrared promotes burn wound healing by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome caused by enhanced autophagy.
Author : Chiu HW1,2, Chen CH1,3, Chang JN1, Chen CH4, Hsu YH5.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016 Feb 11. [Epub ahead of print]
26864306
Effect of hydroxychloroquine and characterization of autophagy in a mouse model of endometriosis.
Author : Ruiz A1, Rockfield S1, Taran N1, Haller E2, Engelman RW3, Flores I4,5, Panina-Bordignon P6, Nanjundan M1.
Cell Death Dis. 2016 Jan 14;7:e2059. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2015.361.
26775710
A mutation in the Warburg syndrome gene, RAB3GAP1, causes a similar syndrome with polyneuropathy and neuronal vacuolation in Black Russian Terrier dogs.
Author : Mhlanga-Mutangadura T1, Johnson GS1, Schnabel RD2, Taylor JF3, Johnson GC1, Katz ML4, Diane Shelton G5, Lever TE6, Giuliano E7, Granger N8, Shomp
Neurobiol Dis. 2015 Nov 19. pii: S0969-9961(15)30093-0. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.11.016. [Epub ahead of print]
26607784
Antiretrovirals, Methamphetamine, and HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120 Compromise Neuronal Energy Homeostasis in Association with Various Degrees of Synaptic and Neuritic Damage.
Author : Sanchez AB1, Varano GP1, de Rozieres CM1, Maung R1, Catalan IC1, Dowling CC1, Sejbuk NE1, Hoefer MM1, Kaul M2.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Oct 19;60(1):168-79. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01632-15.
26482305
Lipoxin A4 methyl ester alleviates vascular cognition impairment by regulating the expression of proteins related to autophagy and ER stress in the rat hippocampus.
Author : Jia Y, Jin W, Xiao Y, Dong Y, Wang T, Fan M, Xu J, Meng N, Li L, Lv P.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2015 Sep 1;20(3):475-87. doi: 10.1515/cmble-2015-0027.
26208392
LC3B globular structures correlate with survival in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Author : El-Mashed S1, O\'Donovan TR1, Kay EW2, Abdallah AR3, Cathcart MC4, O\'Sullivan J4, O\'Grady A2, Reynolds J4, O\'Reilly S5, O\'Sullivan GC1, McKen
BMC Cancer. 2015 Aug 12;15:582. doi: 10.1186/s12885-015-1574-5.
26265176
Upregulation of cell surface estrogen receptor alpha is associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and promotes autophagy maturation.
Author : Li XZ1, Sui CY1, Chen Q1, Chen XP1, Zhang H1, Zhou XP1.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015 Aug 1;8(8):8832-41. eCollection 2015.
26464625
Transcription factor IKZF1 is degraded during apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells induced by kinase inhibition.
Author : Liu Y1, He X1, Sui Y1, Yu R2, Xu G3.
FEBS Lett. 2015 Jul 13. pii: S0014-5793(15)00581-5. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.06.044. [Epub ahead of print]
26183205
Activation of autophagy in rat brain cells following focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion through enhanced expression of Atg1/pULK and LC3.
Author : Yu J1, Bao C2, Dong Y1, Liu X1.
Mol Med Rep. 2015 May 26. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2015.3850. [Epub ahead of print]
26018745
Identification of thioridazine, an antipsychotic drug, as an antiglioblastoma and anticancer stem cell agent using public gene expression data.
Author : Cheng HW1, Liang YH2, Kuo YL3, Chuu CP4, Lin CY5, Lee MH1, Wu AT6, Yeh CT7, Chen EI2, Whang-Peng J8, Su CL9, Huang CY10.
Cell Death Dis. 2015 May 7;6:e1753. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2015.77.
25950483
Myocardin is required for maintenance of vascular and visceral smooth muscle homeostasis during postnatal development.
Author : Huang J1, Wang T1, Wright AC2, Yang J1, Zhou S1, Li L1, Yang J1, Small A1, Parmacek MS3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Apr 7;112(14):4447-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1420363112. Epub 2015 Mar 24.
25805819
Requirement for autophagy in the long-term persistence but not initial formation of memory B cells.
Author : Chen M1, Kodali S2, Jang A2, Kuai L2, Wang J1.
J Immunol. 2015 Mar 15;194(6):2607-15. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1403001. Epub 2015 Feb 11.
25672753
Effect of pantoprazole to enhance activity of docetaxel against human tumour xenografts by inhibiting autophagy.
Author : Tan Q1, Joshua AM2, Saggar JK1, Yu M1, Wang M1, Kanga N1, Zhang JY1, Chen X3, Wouters BG1, Tannock IF4.
Br J Cancer. 2015 Mar 3;112(5):832-40. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2015.17. Epub 2015 Feb 3.
25647012
X-linked myotubular myopathy in Rottweiler dogs is caused by a missense mutation in Exon 11 of the MTM1 gene.
Author : Shelton GD1, Rider BE2, Child G3, Tzannes S3, Guo LT1, Moghadaszadeh B2, Troiano EC2, Haase B4, Wade CM4, Beggs AH2.
Skelet Muscle. 2015 Jan 27;5(1):1. doi: 10.1186/s13395-014-0025-3. eCollection 2015.
25664165
Neutrophils counteract autophagy-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms in alveolar macrophage: role in posthemorrhagic shock acute lung inflammation.
Author : Wen Z1, Fan L2, Li Y3, Zou Z4, Scott MJ3, Xiao G5, Li S6, Billiar TR7, Wilson MA8, Shi X9, Fan J10.
J Immunol. 2014 Nov 1;193(9):4623-33. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1400899. Epub 2014 Sep 29.
25267975
(+)-Epogymnolactam, a novel autophagy inducer from mycelial culture of Gymnopus sp.
Author : Mitsuhashi S1, Shindo C1, Shigetomi K1, Miyamoto T2, Ubukata M3.
Phytochemistry. 2014 Sep 18. pii: S0031-9422(14)00327-6. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.08.012. [Epub ahead of print]
25242622
Inhibition of Intracellular Clusterin Attenuates Cell Death in Nephropathic Cystinosis.
Author : Sansanwal P1, Li L2, Sarwal MM3.
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014 Jul 28. pii: ASN.2013060577. [Epub ahead of print]
25071085
Changes in microtubule-related proteins and autophagy in long-term vitamin E-deficient mice.
Author : Fukui K1, Masuda A, Hosono A, Suwabe R, Yamashita K, Shinkai T, Urano S.
Free Radic Res. 2014 Jun;48(6):649-58. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2014.898295. Epub 2014 Mar 25.
24568262
Phospholipase D2 mediates survival signaling through direct regulation of Akt in glioblastoma cells.
Author : Bruntz RC1, Taylor HE, Lindsley CW, Brown HA.
J Biol Chem. 2014 Jan 10;289(2):600-16. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.532978. Epub 2013 Nov 20.
24257753
Hydroquinone induces oxidative and mitochondrial damage to human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1).
Author : Ramírez C, Pham K, Franco MF, Chwa M, Limb A, Kuppermann BD, Kenney MC.
Neurotoxicology. 2013 Dec;39:102-8. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2013.08.004. Epub 2013 Aug 29.
23994029
Dengue virus infection induces autophagy: an in vivo study.
Author : Lee YR, Hu HY, Kuo SH, Lei HY, Lin YS, Yeh TM, Liu CC, Liu HS.
J Biomed Sci. 2013 Sep 8;20:65. doi: 10.1186/1423-0127-20-65.
24011333
4-Hydroxytamoxifen induces autophagic death through K-Ras degradation.
Author : Kohli L1, Kaza N, Coric T, Byer SJ, Brossier NM, Klocke BJ, Bjornsti MA, Carroll SL, Roth KA.
Cancer Res. 2013 Jul 15;73(14):4395-405. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3765. Epub 2013 May 30.
23722551
Mutant tristetraprolin: a potent inhibitor of malignant glioma cell growth.
Author : Suswam EA, Shacka JJ, Walker K, Lu L, Li X, Si Y, Zhang X, Zheng L, Nabors LB, Cao H, King PH.
J Neurooncol. 2013 Jun;113(2):195-205. doi: 10.1007/s11060-013-1112-8. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
23525947
Induction of autophagy by Imatinib sequesters Bcr-Abl in autophagosomes and down-regulates Bcr-Abl protein.
Author : Elzinga BM, Nyhan MJ, Crowley LC, O'Donovan TR, Cahill MR, McKenna SL.
Am J Hematol. 2013 Jun;88(6):455-62. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23428. Epub 2013 Apr 2.
23440701
Detection of the HIV-1 minus-strand-encoded antisense protein and its association with autophagy.
Author : Torresilla C, Larocque �? Landry S, Halin M, Coulombe Y, Masson JY, Mesnard JM, Barbeau B.
J Virol. 2013 May;87(9):5089-105. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00225-13. Epub 2013 Feb 20.
23427159
Impaired autophagy by soluble endoglin, under physiological hypoxia in early pregnant period, is involved in poor placentation in preeclampsia.
Author : Nakashima A, Yamanaka-Tatematsu M, Fujita N, Koizumi K, Shima T, Yoshida T, Nikaido T, Okamoto A, Yoshimori T, Saito S.
Autophagy. 2013 Mar;9(3):303-16. doi: 10.4161/auto.22927. Epub 2013 Jan 15.
23321791
Benzyl isothiocyanate induces protective autophagy in human prostate cancer cells via inhibition of mTOR signaling.
Author : Lin JF, Tsai TF, Liao PC, Lin YH, Lin YC, Chen HE, Chou KY, Hwang TI.
Carcinogenesis. 2013 Feb;34(2):406-14. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgs359. Epub 2012 Nov 21.
23172666
Chronic autophagy is a cellular adaptation to tumor acidic pH microenvironments.
Author : Wojtkowiak JW, Rothberg JM, Kumar V, Schramm KJ, Haller E, Proemsey JB, Lloyd MC, Sloane BF, Gillies RJ.
Cancer Res. 2012 Aug 15;72(16):3938-47. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3881. Epub 2012 Jun 19.
22719070
HDAC5 is required for maintenance of pericentric heterochromatin, and controls cell-cycle progression and survival of human cancer cells.
Author : Peixoto P, Castronovo V, Matheus N, Polese C, Peulen O, Gonzalez A, Boxus M, Verdin E, Thiry M, Dequiedt F, Mottet D.
Cell Death Differ. 2012 Jul;19(7):1239-52. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2012.3. Epub 2012 Feb 3.
22301920
Caspase-6 activity in a BACHD mouse modulates steady-state levels of mutant huntingtin protein but is not necessary for production of a 586 amino acid proteolytic fragment.
Author : Gafni J, Papanikolaou T, Degiacomo F, Holcomb J, Chen S, Menalled L, Kudwa A, Fitzpatrick J, Miller S, Ramboz S, Tuunanen PI, Lehtimäki KK, Yang XW, Park L, Kwak S, Howland D, Park H, Ellerby LM.
J Neurosci. 2012 May 30;32(22):7454-65. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6379-11.2012.
22649225
Janus-faced liposomes enhance antimicrobial innate immune response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 22;109(21):E1360-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1200484109. Epub 2012 Apr 25.
22538807
Increased hippocampal accumulation of autophagosomes predicts short-term recognition memory impairment in aged mice.
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Age (Dordr). 2012 Apr;34(2):305-16. doi: 10.1007/s11357-011-9234-4. Epub 2011 Mar 23.
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Free Radic Res. 2012 Feb;46(2):184-93. doi: 10.3109/10715762.2011.647689. Epub 2012 Jan 23.
22149330
Beclin 1 knockdown inhibits autophagic activation and prevents the secondary neurodegenerative damage in the ipsilateral thalamus following focal cerebral infarction.
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Autophagy. 2012 Jan;8(1):63-76. doi: 10.4161/auto.8.1.18217. Epub 2012 Jan 1.
22108007
Cell killing and radiosensitizing effects of atorvastatin in PC3 prostate cancer cells.
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J Radiat Res. 2012;53(2):225-33.
22510595
Ras-related tumorigenesis is suppressed by BNIP3-mediated autophagy through inhibition of cell proliferation.
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Neoplasia. 2011 Dec;13(12):1171-82.
22241963
Rab5 and class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase Vps34 are involved in hepatitis C virus NS4B-induced autophagy.
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J Virol. 2011 Oct;85(20):10561-71. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00173-11. Epub 2011 Aug 10.
21835792
Autophagy activation is involved in neuroprotection induced by hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning against focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
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Brain Res. 2011 Jul 21;1402:109-21. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.05.049. Epub 2011 May 27.
21684529
A rapid method to improve protein detection by indirect ELISA.
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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Jul 15;410(4):726-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.06.005. Epub 2011 Jun 7.
21679691
Involvement of autophagy in oncogenic K-Ras-induced malignant cell transformation.
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J Biol Chem. 2011 Apr 15;286(15):12924-32. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.138958. Epub 2011 Feb 7.
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Influence of Hsp90 and HDAC inhibition and tubulin acetylation on perinuclear protein aggregation in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
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Macroautophagy is defective in mucolipin-1-deficient mouse neurons.
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Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Nov;40(2):370-7. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.06.010. Epub 2010 Jun 28.
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Invasion and multiplication of Helicobacter pylori in gastric epithelial cells and implications for antibiotic resistance.
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Infect Immun. 2010 Oct;78(10):4157-65. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00524-10. Epub 2010 Aug 9.
20696835
PI3K/p110{delta} is a novel therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.
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Blood. 2010 Sep 2;116(9):1460-8. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-06-222943. Epub 2010 May 26.
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p62/sequestosome 1 as a regulator of proteasome inhibitor-induced autophagy in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.
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Mol Vis. 2010 Jul 27;16:1399-414.
20680098
A novel quantitative flow cytometry-based assay for autophagy.
Author : Eng KE, Panas MD, Karlsson Hedestam GB, McInerney GM.
Autophagy. 2010 Jul;6(5):634-41. doi: 10.4161/auto.6.5.12112. Epub 2010 Jul 1.
20458170
A highly toxic cellular prion protein induces a novel, nonapoptotic form of neuronal death.
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Am J Pathol. 2010 Jun;176(6):2695-706. doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.091007. Epub 2010 May 14.
20472884
ISG20L1 is a p53 family target gene that modulates genotoxic stress-induced autophagy.
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Mol Cancer. 2010 Apr 29;9:95. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-95.
20429933
Lysosome dysfunction triggers Atg7-dependent neural apoptosis.
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J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 2;285(14):10497-507. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.103747. Epub 2010 Feb 1.
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Combination treatment with arsenic trioxide and irradiation enhances cell-killing effects in human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo through induction of both autophagy and apoptosis.
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Autophagy. 2010 Apr;6(3):353-65. Epub 2010 Apr 11.
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The IKK complex contributes to the induction of autophagy.
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16714284

BACKGROUND

Macroautophagy is the major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). MAP1A and MAP1B are microtubule-associated proteins which mediate the physical interactions between microtubules and components of the cytoskeleton. These proteins are involved in formation of autophagosomal vacuoles (autophagosomes). MAP1A and MAP1B each consist of a heavy chain subunit and multiple light chain subunits. MAP1LC3b is one of the light chain subunits and can associate with either MAP1A or MAP1B. The precursor molecule is cleaved by APG4B/ATG4B to form the cytosolic form, LC3-I. This is activated by APG7L/ATG7, transferred to ATG3 and conjugated to phospholipid to form the membrane-bound form, LC3-II.

REFERENCES

References for protein:
1.Baehrecke EH. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):505-10. (2005)
2.Lum JJ, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):439-48. (2005)
3.Greenberg JT. Dev Cell. 8(6):799-801. (2005)
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5. Shintani T and Klionsky DJ. Science. 306(5698):990-5. (2004)
6.Tanida I., et al. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 36:2503-2518(2004)
7.He H., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 278:29278-29287(2003)
8.Tanida I., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 279:36268-36276(2004)
References for U251 cell line:
1. Westermark B.; Pontén J.; Hugosson R. (1973).” Determinants for the establishment of permanent tissue culture lines from human gliomas”. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 81:791-805. [PMID: 4359449].
2. Pontén, J.,Westermark B. (1978).” Properties of Human Malignant Glioma Cells in Vitro”. Medical Biology 56: 184-193.[PMID: 359950].
3. Geng Y.;Kohli L.; Klocke B.J.; Roth K.A.(2010). “Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent”. Neuro Oncol. 12(5): 473–481.[ PMID: 20406898].

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