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MB21D1 Antibody

Purified Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (Mab)

     
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  • 1 - MB21D1 Antibody AM8562b
    All lanes : Anti-MB21D1 Antibody at 1:4000 dilution Lane 1: THP-1 whole cell lysate Lane 2: MDA-MB-231 whole cell lysate Lysates/proteins at 20 µg per lane. Secondary Goat Anti-mouse IgG, (H+L), Peroxidase conjugated at 1/10000 dilution. Predicted band size : 59kDa Blocking/Dilution buffer: 5% NFDM/TBST.
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Product info
Application
  • Applications Legend:
  • E=ELISA
  • WB=Western Blotting
  • IHC=Immunohistochemistry
  • IHC-P=Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
  • IP=Immunoprecipitation
  • IF=Immunofluorescence
  • IC=Immunochemistry
  • ICC=Immunocytochemistry
  • FC=Flow Cytometry
  • DB=Dot Blot
WB, E
Primary Accession Q8N884
Reactivity Human
Host Mouse
Clonality monoclonal
Isotype IgG1,k
Clone Names 1697CT136.65.30
Calculated MW 58814 Da
Additional info
Gene ID 115004
Other Names Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, cGAMP synthase, cGAS, h-cGAS, 2.7.7.86, Mab-21 domain-containing protein 1, MB21D1, C6orf150
Target/Specificity This MB21D1 antibody is generated from a mouse immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 1-185 amino acids from human MB21D1.
Dilution WB~~1:4000
StorageMaintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.
PrecautionsMB21D1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.
Protein Information
Name CGAS {ECO:0000303|PubMed:23258413, ECO:0000312|HGNC:HGNC:21367}
Function Nucleotidyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) from ATP and GTP and plays a key role in innate immunity (PubMed:23258413, PubMed:23707061, PubMed:23722159, PubMed:24077100, PubMed:25131990, PubMed:29976794). Catalysis involves both the formation of a 2',5' phosphodiester linkage at the GpA step and the formation of a 3',5' phosphodiester linkage at the ApG step, producing c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p] (PubMed:28363908, PubMed:28214358). Acts as a key cytosolic DNA sensor, the presence of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the cytoplasm being a danger signal that triggers the immune responses (PubMed:28363908). Binds cytosolic DNA directly, leading to activation and synthesis of cGAMP, a second messenger that binds to and activates TMEM173/STING, thereby triggering type-I interferon production (PubMed:28363908, PubMed:28314590). Preferentially recognizes and binds curved long DNAs (PubMed:30007416). In contrast to other mammals, human CGAS displays species-specific mechanisms of DNA recognition and produces less cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), allowing a more fine-tuned response to pathogens (PubMed:30007416). Has antiviral activity by sensing the presence of dsDNA from DNA viruses in the cytoplasm (PubMed:28363908). Also acts as an innate immune sensor of infection by retroviruses, such as HIV-1, by detecting the presence of reverse-transcribed DNA in the cytosol (PubMed:23929945). Detection of retroviral reverse-transcribed DNA in the cytosol may be indirect and be mediated via interaction with PQBP1, which directly binds reverse-transcribed retroviral DNA (PubMed:26046437). Also detects the presence of DNA from bacteria, such as M.tuberculosis (PubMed:26048138). cGAMP can be transferred from producing cells to neighboring cells through gap junctions, leading to promote TMEM173/STING activation and convey immune response to connecting cells (PubMed:24077100). cGAMP can also be transferred between cells by virtue of packaging within viral particles contributing to IFN-induction in newly infected cells in a cGAS-independent but TMEM173/STING-dependent manner (PubMed:26229115). In addition to antiviral activity, also involved in the response to cellular stresses, such as senescence, DNA damage or genome instability (PubMed:28738408, PubMed:28759889). Acts as a regulator of cellular senescence by binding to cytosolic chromatin fragments that are present in senescent cells, leading to trigger type-I interferon production via TMEM173/STING and promote cellular senescence (By similarity). Also involved in the inflammatory response to genome instability and double-stranded DNA breaks: acts by localizing to micronuclei arising from genome instability (PubMed:28738408, PubMed:28759889). Micronuclei, which as frequently found in cancer cells, consist of chromatin surrounded by its own nuclear membrane: following breakdown of the micronuclear envelope, a process associated with chromothripsis, CGAS binds self-DNA exposed to the cytosol, leading to cGAMP synthesis and subsequent activation of TMEM173/STING and type-I interferon production (PubMed:28738408, PubMed:28759889). Acts as a suppressor of DNA repair in response to DNA damage: translocates to the nucleus following dephosphorylation at Tyr-215 and inhibits homologous recombination repair by interacting with PARP1, the CGAS-PARP1 interaction leading to impede the formation of the PARP1-TIMELESS complex (PubMed:30356214).
Cellular Location Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus Note=Mainly localizes in the cytosol (PubMed:23258413, PubMed:26048138). Upon transfection with dsDNA forms punctate structures that co-localize with DNA and Beclin-1 (BECN1) (PubMed:26048138). Phosphorylation at Tyr-215 promotes cytosolic retention; translocates into the nucleus following dephosphorylation (PubMed:30356214).
Tissue Location Expressed in the monocytic cell line THP1.
Research Areas

BACKGROUND

Nucleotidyltransferase that catalyzes the formation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) from ATP and GTP. Catalysis involves both the formation of a 2',5' phosphodiester linkage at the GpA step and the formation of a 3',5' phosphodiester linkage at the ApG step, producing c[G(2',5')pA(3',5')p]. Has antiviral activity by acting as a key cytosolic DNA sensor, the presence of double- stranded DNA (dsDNA) in the cytoplasm being a danger signal that triggers the immune responses. Binds cytosolic DNA directly, leading to activation and synthesis of cGAMP, a second messenger that binds to and activates TMEM173/STING, thereby triggering type-I interferon production.

REFERENCES

Sun L.,et al.Science 339:786-791(2013).
Ota T.,et al.Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004).
Mungall A.J.,et al.Nature 425:805-811(2003).
Choudhary C.,et al.Science 325:834-840(2009).
Olsen J.V.,et al.Sci. Signal. 3:RA3-RA3(2010).

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