The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation.
COMMON VARIANTS IN 40 GENES ASSESSED FOR DIABETES INCIDENCE AND RESPONSE TO METFORMIN AND LIFESTYLE INTERVENTIONS IN THE DIABETES PREVENTION PROGRAM. Jablonski KA, et al. Diabetes, 2010 Aug 3. PMID 20682687. Evaluation of candidate stromal epithelial cross-talk genes identifies association between risk of serous ovarian cancer and TERT, a cancer susceptibility hot-spot. Johnatty SE, et al. PLoS Genet, 2010 Jul 8. PMID 20628624. PTPN11 and KRAS gene analysis in patients with Noonan and Noonan-like syndromes. Brasil AS, et al. Genet Test Mol Biomarkers, 2010 Jun. PMID 20578946. PTP1B targets the endosomal sorting machinery: dephosphorylation of regulatory sites on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport component STAM2. Stuible M, et al. J Biol Chem, 2010 Jul 30. PMID 20504764. Phosphatase-dependent and -independent functions of Shp2 in neural crest cells underlie LEOPARD syndrome pathogenesis. Stewart RA, et al. Dev Cell, 2010 May 18. PMID 20493809.